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PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US. This may be helpful for RP patients in reducing anxiety. This association was not found in earlier research conducted with secondary school students [67]. This questionnaire was developed by experts in the field of mental health to identify anxiety and depression [22]. Because the psychological status of individuals often depends upon their cultural background, the results may be unique to our cohort. Furthermore, findings suggest that the strength of the relationship between maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology may be a function of clinical severity [41]. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0195983, Editor: Demetrios G. Vavvas, Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, UNITED STATES, Received: October 13, 2017; Accepted: April 3, 2018; Published: April 23, 2018. Third, a rigorous criterion for life events was used, namely stressful life events reported by the adolescent as upsetting. Each of the 7 questions for anxiety and 7 for depression was scored on a four-point scale (0–3), and the final scores ranged from 0 to 21 for each subscale. Quantitative research is necessary to attain a particular objective. PLoS ONE 11(8): Copyright: © 2018 Sainohira et al. Our results showed that the RP patients who were employed had significantly lower depression scores than those who were unemployed. This study also has several limitations. Globally, national guidelines for depression have prioritised evidence from randomised controlled trials and quantitative meta-analyses, omitting qualitative research concerning patient experience of treatments. PLoS ONE 13(4): HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS-A, HADS anxiety subscale; HADS-D, HADS depression subscale. Multi-group analysis was used to test differences in depression level. A psychologist informed adolescents and parents about the study and when both gave written informed consent, self-report questionnaires were completed pre-treatment using online or paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Another MANOVA showed group differences in the three types of stressful life events, which occurred more often in the depressed subgroup (F(3,394) = 24.410, p < .001), specifically for health threats (F(1,396) = 12.419, p < .001) and relational challenges (F(1,396) = 72.475, p < .001). The biomolecular approach to major depression disorder is explained by the different steps that involve cell membrane viscosity, Gsα protein and tubulin. UMIN000018444). The statistical significance level was set at <0.05. Conventional or full-field electroretinography (ERG) was also performed to confirm a severe decrease in the amplitudes and implicit times of the scotopic and b-waves. Data collection of patients was approved by the independent Medical Ethics Committee (METC) of the Utrecht Medical Centre at Utrecht University. However, the Wald test of parameter constraints showed no significant differences between the non-depressed and depressed group for these indirect paths. For example, a rating scaleor closed questions on a questionnaire would generate quantitative data as these produce either numerical data or data that can be put into categories (e.g., “yes,” “no” answers). PLOS ONE 13(1): e0192300. The HADS is a well-validated and reliable questionnaire that has been used extensively within the field of oncology to assess depression and anxiety. Because RP is a progressive disease and can lead to severe visual impairments, it can lead to severe psychological distress. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Sleep deprivation … A quantitative synthesis of published research showed, however, that the sex difference is age specific. Abortion and mental health: quantitative synthesis and analysis of research published 1995–2009. To test the differences in the indirect effects between both groups, the MODEL TEST command was used. Specific life events were associated with specific emotion regulation strategies. First, according to the literature, testing mediational models on the etiology of adolescent depression was needed [14]. Quantitative Research Article Analysis Report. Maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation could representative of the self-referent association of the dual process model and adaptive cognitive reflection is considered to be of importance for the regulation of emotions. The following search uses Thoreau, our multi-database search tool, to find examples of quantitative research studies.However, you can search in any article or dissertation database for quantitative studies. In acceptance-based treatments, acceptance is promoted in order to reduce experiential avoidance [58,59]. Another study found a significant increase in depression in the second year after bereavement [65]. (2018) These findings are in line with a review on depressive symptoms in epileptic youth, showing an elevated risk for depression in this specific group with health problems [66]. No, Is the Subject Area "Mental health and psychiatry" applicable to this article? Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Taiji Sakamoto RP patients with high HADS-A score tended to belong to the Japan RP Society. This finding is in line with earlier findings that maladaptive emotion regulation was linked to the onset of depressive symptoms [35–39]. Participants were asked if they had experienced the life event, yes or no. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. We used a sample of 398 adolescents (Mage = 16.94, SD = 2.90), including 52 depressed outpatients, who all reported stressful life event(s). From a clinical viewpoint it is necessary to establish which factors actually mediate the occurrence of depressive symptoms after specific types of stressful life events, as such factors could then be addressed effectively in prevention and treatment efforts. This was done by testing whether the model fit (Δχ²) was significantly better for the model in which the paths of interest were allowed to differ between non-depressed and depressed, compared to the model in which the paths of interest were constrained to be equal [56]. Abstract. Correlation between the HADS score and the NEI-VFQ25 mean score in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. research on men s depression, as well as suggestions for clinical practice with men are also presented. Hahm et al reported that 25.7% of RP patients had depression using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) [12]. So it seems that health threats are particularly important for depressive symptoms in adolescents. In a longitudinal design this variable should be included because depressive symptoms could increase instantly or gradually after some time, through use of specific cognitive regulation strategies [70]. These results deserve some further interpretation and reflection. There was no additional external funding received for this study. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Relational challenging stressful life events were weakly correlated with more depressive symptoms. In adults, emotion regulation plays a central role in the etiology and maintenance of clinical levels of psychopathology [32–34]. To examine the hypothesized mediation of cognitive emotion regulation strategies in the association between the type of stressful life events and depression, we used the Model Indirect approach using MPLUS 7 with a bootstrap procedure to ensure the accuracy and robustness of the analyses and to estimate Type I errors. Correlation between the HADS-A score and the NEI-VFQ25 mean score, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r = - 0.097, P = 0.31). Because extreme scores on Acceptance could be maladaptive the score was transformed into a categorical variable high (score above 14), low (score less than 10) and medium [36]. No long-term effects could be assessed in the current study. A larger sample than N = 109 is needed to identify possible mediators in the depressed group. The present study aimed to provide both a quantitative and qualitative description of … First, cross-sectional data were used and therefore no temporal conclusions could be drawn. Takao Endo, Reijnders M, The retinitis pigmentosa was diagnosed by the presence of nyctalopia, constricted visual fields, and characteristic fundus findings of arteriolar narrowing, fine intraretinal pigmentation, and loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) typically in the mid- and far periphery. This article seeks to find if there is a relationship between health and discrimination. The other visual functions such as the FAS (r = 0.11, P = 0.27), FFS (r = 0.12, P = 0.20), and FVS (r = 0.09, P = 0.34) were also not significantly correlated with the HADS-A score. This difference might account for the differences. The relationship between challenging, stressful life events and depressive symptoms in the whole group was mediated by maladaptive strategies (self-blame, catastrophizing and rumination).

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