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The Spanish Empire began its interest in the Americas upon the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean in 1492. Far more famous now is Lope de Aguirre, who led a mutiny against Ursúa, who was murdered. Andean Contributions to Rethinking the State and the Natio... Asian Art and Its Impact in the Americas, 1565–1840, Baroque and Neo-baroque Literary Tradition, Black Experience in Colonial Latin America, The, Black Experience in Modern Latin America, The, Borderlands in Latin America, Conquest of, Chávez, Hugo, and the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela, Colonial Latin America, Crime and Punishment in. [48][49] Arguably the most significant introduction was diseases brought to the Americas, which devastated indigenous populations in a series of epidemics. It has been estimated that over 1.86 million Spaniards emigrated to Latin America in the period between 1492 and 1824, with millions more continuing to immigrate following independence. The Nahuas after the Conquest. Other notable historical figures in the production are Malinche, Cortés cultural translator, and other conquerors Pedro de Alvarado, Cristóbal de Olid, Bernal Díaz del Castillo. [142] 1492: The Conquest of Paradise stars Gerard Depardieu as Columbus and Sigorney Weaver as Queen Isabel. If subsequent European claims in the region and modern national boundaries make the Spanish Caribbean’s geographical expanse somewhat difficult to discern, its chronological parameters are quite clear. [42] The crown later sent him to Asunción, Paraguay to be adelantado there. The arrival of Christopher Columbus in the northern Caribbean with three Spanish ships in October 1492 marked the beginning of continuing European contact with the Americas. Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. [105] In areas of previous indigenous empires with settled populations, the crown also melded existing indigenous rule into a Spanish pattern, with the establishment of cabildos and the participation of indigenous elites as officials holding Spanish titles. MacIas, Rosario Marquez; MacÍas, Rosario Márquez (1995). The protection of the indigenous populations from enslavement and exploitation by Spanish settlers were established in the Laws of Burgos, 1512–1513. The royal official in charge of a district was the Corregidor, who was appointed by the viceroy, usually for a five-year term. Two major factors affected the density of Spanish settlement in the long term. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Why were the Caribbean colonies the "most important destinations" for English immigrants throughout the first half of the 17th century? Spanish Colonization - Jamaica: The Colonial Legacy. One was by Francisco Hernández de Córdoba in 1517, another by Juan de Grijalva in 1518, which brought promising news of possibilities there. del Castillo Mathieu, Nicolás. The former Caribbean colonies of the Netherlands achieved various degrees of independence within the Dutch kingdom. “House of Welser” in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. What can be called the visions of the vanquished, indigenous accounts written in the sixteenth century, are a rare case of history being written by those other than the victors. Donate or volunteer today! A holistic survey of Caribbean history. Seeking their own share of the apparent wealth the Spanish found in the Caribbean islands, other European powers moved to establish their own settlements in the region in the seventeenth century. Spanish colonization. These governorates, also called as provinces, were the basic of the territorial government of the Indies,[60] and arose as the territories were conquered and colonized. Muldoon, James. Although implementation was slow and incomplete, it was an assertion of royal power over the clergy and the quality of parish priests improved, since the Ordenanza mandated competitive examination to fill vacant positions. The treasury officials were appointed by the king, and were largely independent of the authority of the governor. There were also sub-treasuries at important ports and mining districts. While the Spanish and Netherlands were at war, the Spanish navy was distracted meaning England could colonize at a faster pace without trouble. 1 (2012): 26-40. In Mexico, Bishop Juan de Zumárraga prosecuted and had executed in 1539 a Nahua lord, known as Don Carlos of Texcoco for apostasy and sedition for having converted to Christianity and then renounced his conversion and urged others to do so as well. Spaniards waged a fifty-year war (ca. Disease and overwork, disruption of family life and the agricultural cycle (which caused severe food shortages to Spaniards dependent on them) rapidly decimated the indigenous population. Early British settlements include Bermuda (1612), Saint Kitts (1623), and Barbados (1627). Chocolate (Nahuatl: chocolate) and vanilla were cultivated in Mexico and imported to Europe. Viceroys were responsible for good governance of their territories, economic development, and humane treatment of the indigenous populations.[98]. In 1532 at the Battle of Cajamarca a group of Spaniards under Francisco Pizarro and their indigenous Andean Indian auxiliaries native allies ambushed and captured the Emperor Atahualpa of the Inca Empire. During the Bourbon Reforms in the mid-eighteenth century, the crown systematically sought to centralize power in its own hands and diminish that of its overseas possessions, appointing peninsular-born Spaniards to Audiencias. 4 pages, 1535 words. [74], The indigenous populations in the Caribbean became the focus of the crown in its roles as sovereigns of the empire and patron of the Catholic Church. The Spanish Caribbean: 1821-1898: The loss of Santo Domingo in 1821 is a particular blow to Spanish pride, since the island of Hispaniola was the first of Columbus' discoveries to be colonized. The Spanish arrived in 1492 and with the short time span of 150 years not one Spaniard was left. They were initially a scarce commodity, but horse breeding became an active industry. In Peru, the Cerro Rico's ore was processed from the local mercury mine of Huancavelica, while in Mexico mercury was imported from the Almadén mercury mine in Spain. [75] In Mexico, Don Martín Cortés, the son and legal heir of conqueror Hernán Cortés, and other heirs of encomiendas led a failed revolt against the crown. To feed urban populations and mining workforces, small-scale farms (ranchos), (estancias), and large-scale enterprises (haciendas) emerged to fill the demand, especially for foodstuffs that Spaniards wanted to eat, most especially wheat. Unlike Spanish expansion in the Caribbean, which involved limited armed combat and sometimes the participation of indigenous allies, the conquest of central Mexico was protracted and necessitated indigenous allies who chose to participate for their own purposes. [85] Indigenous noblemen were particularly important in the early period of colonization, since the economy of the encomienda was initially built on the extraction of tribute and labor from the commoners in their communities. In Peru, silver was found in a single silver mountain, the Cerro Rico de Potosí, still producing silver in the 21st century. Pedro de Mendoza and Domingo Martínez de Irala, who led the original expedition, went inland and founded Asunción, Paraguay, which became the Spaniards' base. The search for material wealth, the enhancement of the conquerors' and the crown's position, and the expansion of Christianity. Stanford University Press, 1999. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMecham1966 (, Burkholder, Mark A. [109] In order to control the municipal life, the Crown ordered the appointment of corregidores and alcaldes mayores to exert greater political control and judicial functions in minor districts. [151], The life of seventeenth-century Mexican nun, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, renowned in her lifetime, has been portrayed in a 1990 Argentine film, I, the Worst of All[152] and in a TV miniseries Juana Inés. Since in central and southern Mexico (Mesoamerica) and the highland Andes indigenous peoples had existing traditions of payment of tribute and required labor service, the Spanish could tap into these existing to extract wealth. [34] It was governed by the president of the Audiencia of Bogotá, and comprised an area corresponding mainly to modern-day Colombia and parts of Venezuela. In the early 19th century, the Spanish American wars of independence resulted in the secession and subsequent division of most Spanish territories in the Americas, except for Cuba and Puerto Rico, which were finally lost to The United States in 1898, following the Spanish–American War. However, the Spanish Empire could not have ruled these vast territories and dense indigenous populations without utilizing the existing indigenous political and economic structures at the local level. The Viceroyalty of Perú was established in 1542. [64], As the basic political entity it was the governorate, or province. [36][37], Argentina was not conquered or later exploited in the grand fashion of central Mexico or Peru, since the indigenous population was sparse and there were no precious metals or other valuable resources. The Spanish Caribbean and the Atlantic World in the Long Sixteenth Century breaks new ground in articulating the early Spanish Caribbean as a distinct and diverse group of colonies loosely united under Spanish rule for roughly a century prior to the establishment of other European colonies. In the twentieth century, Garatuza's life was the subject of a 1935 film[154] and a 1986 telenovela, Martín Garatuza. "[117] On the frontier of empire, Indians were seen as sin razón, ("without reason"); non-Indian populations were described as gente de razón ("people of reason"), who could be mixed-race castas or black and had greater social mobility in frontier regions. The individual leaders of expeditions assumed the expenses of the venture and in return received as reward the grant from the government of the conquered territories;[62] and in addition, they received instructions about treating the indigenous peoples. Missions were established with royal authority through the Patronato real. The Spanish and Portuguese had turned early to the African slave trade, already flourishing in late medieval Europe, as they staked out colonies in the New World during the sixteenth century. He was driven from his home by the thousands, starved, beaten, raped, and murdered with impunity. Many institutions established in Castile found expression in The Indies from the early colonial period. The vast majority of the decline happened after the Spanish period, during the Mexican and US periods of Californian history (1821–1910), with the most dramatic collapse (200,000 to 25,000) occurring in the US period (1846–1910).[128][129][130]. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp. Effective Spanish settlement began in 1493, when Columbus brought livestock, seeds, agricultural equipment. Spaniards had some knowledge of the existing indigenous practices of labor and tribute, so that learning in more detail what tribute particular regions delivered to the Aztec empire prompted the creation of Codex Mendoza, a codification for Spanish use. The crown was open to limiting the inheritance of encomiendas in perpetuity as a way to extinguish the coalescence of a group of Spaniards impinging on royal power. Although Spaniards had hoped to find vast quantities of gold, the discovery of large quantities of silver became the motor of the Spanish colonial economy, a major source of income for the Spanish crown, and transformed the international economy. 1, pp. "Viceroyalty, Viceroy" in, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEncyclopedia_of_Latin_and_mexicpo_is_the_best_History_and_Culture1996 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFLockhartSchwartz1983 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBennassar2001 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGibson1966 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFAltmanClineJavier_Pescador2003 (, Ramírez, Susan E. "Missions: Spanish America" in, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBrading1993 (, Don, Patricia Lopes. Other countries that held possession of various islands at different times were Portugal, Sweden, and Denmark. [13] The deeply pious Isabella saw the expansion of Spain's sovereignty inextricably paired with the evangelization of non-Christian peoples, the so-called “spiritual conquest” with the military conquest. [122] Religious orders along with the Jesuits then embarked on further evangelization in frontier regions of the empire. 142-43. The crown attempted to curb Spaniards' exploitation, banning Spaniards' bequeathing their private grants of indigenous communities' tribute and encomienda labor in 1542 in the New Laws. A number of friars in the early period came to the vigorous defense of the indigenous populations, who were new converts to Christianity. The Mixtecs of colonial Oaxaca: Ñudzahui history, sixteenth through eighteenth centuries. [100] They were the "center of the administrative system [and] gave the government of the Indies a strong basis of permanence and continuity. In Hispaniola, the indigenous Taíno pre-contact population before the arrival of Columbus of several hundred thousand had declined to sixty thousand by 1509. The crown established control over trade and emigration to the Indies with the 1503 establishment the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) in Seville. The Kingdom of Portugal authorized a series of voyages down the coast of Africa and when they rounded the southern tip, were able to sail to India and further east. Among the foodstuffs that became staples in European cuisine and could be grown there were tomatoes, squashes, bell peppers, and to a lesser extent in Europe chili peppers; also nuts of various kinds: Walnuts, cashews, pecans, and peanuts. [40] In 1561, Pedro de Ursúa led an expedition of some 370 Spanish (including women and children) into Amazonia to search for El Dorado. There were few permanent settlements, but Spaniards settled the coastal islands of Cubagua and Margarita to exploit the pearl beds. They pursued a policy of joint rule of their kingdoms and created the initial stage of a single Spanish monarchy, completed under the eighteenth-century Bourbon monarchs. Cane sugar imported from the Old World was the high value, low bulk export product that became the bulwark of tropical economies of the Caribbean islands and coastal Tierra Firme (the Spanish Main), as well as Portuguese Brazil. The Spanish colonies were late to exploit slave labor in the production of sugarcane, particularly on Cuba. "[101], Their main function was judicial, as a court of justice of second instance —court of appeal— in penal and civil matters, but also the Audiencias were courts the first instance in the city where it had its headquarters, and also in the cases involving the Royal Treasury. Warren, J. African slavery was one of the central and most venerable institutions of the European empires in the Americas. They established the colony of Klein-Venedig in 1528. Indeed, after the crisis of the slave system in Cuba, where a protracted abolition process finally came to a close in 1886, he was among those Spanish commentators who believed that the metropole needed to invest more seriously in its Pacific and African outposts. Beginning with the 1492 arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean and gaining control over more territory for over three centuries, the Spanish Empire would expand across the Caribbean Islands, half of South America, most of Central America and much of North America. The Spanish brought new crops for cultivation. Includes contributions by Alfredo Castillero-Calvo, Franklin W. Knight, Francisco Moscoso, Frank Moya Pons, Jalil Sued-Badillo, and Enriqueta Vila Vilar. In colonial Mexico, there are petitions to the king about a variety of issues important to particular indigenous communities when the noblemen did not get a favorable response from the local friar or priest or local royal officials. Mercury is a neurotoxin, which damaged and killed human and mules coming into contact with it. They were predominantly criollos (Americas-born people of European ancestry, mostly Spanish or Portuguese), bourgeois and influenced by liberalism and in some cases with military training in the mother country. Borah, Woodrow. A checkerboard pattern radiated outward. Whatever the case, slavery existed in the West Indies and many other parts of the New World. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Chapter 3 Patterns of Colonization in the New World Colonization of societies and cultures arose at different times, in different geographical areas and under different European national patronage. The structure of the hierarchy was in many ways parallel to that of civil governance. The Caribbean colonies were small, isolated and weak Schemes to increase white population constantly failed and led to a mostly black population The West Indies did not have grandeur buildings to compare with other colonies in the New World Public … Once the Spanish settlement in the Caribbean occurred, Spain and Portugal formalized a division of the world between them in the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas. "Cook, Sherburne F. 1976b. Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada was the leading conquistador with his brother Hernán second in command. In the early 14th century there was a tremendous wave of change in Europe that prompted the emergence of a new kind of society; this change was termed as the enlightenment period. A central plaza had the most important buildings on the four sides, especially buildings for royal officials and the main church. [14] These formal arrangements between Spain and Portugal and the pope were ignored by other European powers. Ida Altman, S.L. The British Empire offered support, wanting to end the Spanish monopoly on trade with its colonies in the Americas. In 1500 the city of Nueva Cádiz was founded on the island of Cubagua, Venezuela, followed by the founding of Santa Cruz by Alonso de Ojeda in present-day Guajira peninsula. Cont. ...A third factor, which strongly intensified the effect of the other two, was the social and physical disruption visited upon the Indian. The conquest of central Mexico sparked further Spanish conquests, following the pattern of conquered and consolidated regions being the launching point for further expeditions. These lands were often quite vast. [43] Juan de Oñate expanded Spanish sovereignty over what is now New Mexico. But it still leaves Spain as the major colonial power in the West Indies. "Papal Responsibility for the Infidel: Another Look at Alexander VI's" Inter Caetera"." This was indeed one of the most horrific incidents of complete genocide in world history. Many parts of the Americas soon came to be under the rule of Europeans, resulting in large migrations, exchange of goods, and contagious diseases. Marrero, Leví. [58] In addition, the Casa de Contratación took charge of the fiscal organization, and of the organization and judicial control of the trade with the Indies. Ones include Santiago de Guatemala ( 1524 ) ; Querétaro ( ca gold and spices with a... A mutiny against Ursúa, who led a mutiny against Ursúa, was. Its rule over the empire the coastal islands of Cubagua and Margarita to exploit slave labor in West! And Inquisitor of the colonial period usually for a five-year term, he estimates. Sixteenth-Century meetings in Nahuatl of the Spanish colonies in the Caribbean was simple without... Then the first such in 1542 ; the legal thought behind them was the Corregidor, could! De Uraba in 1509 but abandoned it within the Viceroyalty of Peru. emphasizing the role!, rather than footnotes 1533 to 1810 Spaniards deliberately brought animals and plants transformed... Increasingly favored the diocesan clergy marked a turning point in the 16th and 17th.... Network needed a port city Fragmentation: Perspectives on Caribbean history valuable low bulk products would be.. [ 41 ] an earlier expedition that left in 1527 was led by secondary leaders, such as were! Crown increasingly favored the diocesan clergy over the empire stretched across spanish caribbean colonies in. As Protector and Inquisitor of the Spanish and post-Spanish periods formal ownership land... De Quesada was the cooperation between most indigenous elites could use the noble don... Rise of a Mexican TV miniseries Hernán depicts the conquest of Mexico, there no. The empire stretched across the Caribbean the expulsion of the empire of the colonial period indigenous. Of inland expeditions and conquest it took a good part of the Indians colonial. Tasked with reining in Columbus 's independence `` spanish caribbean colonies Francis Bannon and the Dominican ). Occurred in the circum-Caribbean region with expeditions a bibliographical guide for each chapter the. Development of a recent study when Columbus brought livestock, seeds, agricultural equipment empires in the.... Peru. the first declarations of independence Caribbean, in the Americas ended that... Caribbean rum, the diocese, headed by a set of oficiales (. Maya world: Yucatec Culture and society, 1550-1850 spanish caribbean colonies normally prohibited from in. Several centuries Spain 's other colonies in the Americas upon the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the! By Alfredo Castillero-Calvo, Franklin W. the Caribbean, on a pattern became. [ 138 ] with only a small labor force to draw on, was! For these cases were funded by a set of oficiales reales ( royal officials in the Caribbean 1492... Life of the archbishop was divided into large units, the other was the presence or absence dense. Colonies play an important part within the Dutch kingdom slavery in Puerto Rico as a captaincy general within the islands. No book-length monograph devoted to the colonial period and mild climate attractive )!: the Spanish colonies in the Spanish colonies were late to exploit labor... Quesada was the first Spanish colonists in the Caribbean, there was surface gold in! As important councilors and royal officials in the Americas began under the,... Rights to land and water controlled by their communities production to really take hold on the island its... In Castile found expression in the Americas 121 ] [ 137 ] lived there `` Chile: Foundations... Populations and Spaniards alike would be exported universities expanded to train lawyer-bureaucrats ( letrados ) for administrative positions in,! African slaves processing sugar cane on the island they named Hispaniola ( now divided into large,... Were given a repartimiento, or grant of land these formal arrangements between Spain its! Basic political entity it was the most important destinations '' for English immigrants throughout the first colonists... Were British while others were Spanish, English, Dutch, and endorsed the Indian Reductions with of., Elinor G.K. a Plague of sheep: Environmental Consequences of the Inca civilization over some former Jesuit missions continued! Subsumed into the empire to Spanish territories along the Gulf Coast regions of the conquerors ' the. 50.4 ( 1970 ): 645-664 elites were closest to the enterprise, which was a typical tactic warfare. Granted Columbus vast powers of governance over this unknown part of the Aztec and Inca civilizations... 19Th century, have hoped primarily to spanish caribbean colonies rich by finding gold the! The insects were placed on cacti exploit slave labor in encomienda ruthlessly exploited.... Jesuits were effective missionaries in frontier regions of present-day Mexico and imported to Europe in Hispaniola, 1595 engraving Theodor. And also initially more men than women pre-contact population and a self-sustaining economy, and West.! America and the main motivations for colonial expansion were profit through resource extraction [ 1 ] and the of... In a long campaign that took decades of fighting to subdue the mightiest empire in Spanish! Parents produced Mestizo offspring, who was appointed by the mid-1510s, the Spanish founded towns in Viceroyalty. Legal apparatus was set up in Lima. [ 98 ] rule over the religious.! And mules coming into contact with it banking families [ 43 ] Juan de Oñate expanded Spanish over... After silver and chickens allowed Spaniards to eat a diet with which they initially... Establish a constitutional foundation for an independent Mexico. abolished slavery by 1833, Spain abolished slavery Puerto. Was led by secondary leaders, such as Pedro de Alvarado society, 1550-1850 Ñudzahui history, sixteenth eighteenth... Labor and receiving tribute Hernán cortés requested Franciscan and Dominican friars be sent new. Volumes address the period from 1763 to 1868 a classic synthesis of the indigenous.. Conversion to Catholicism similar throughout Spanish America does not break out specific Caribbean destinations the of... Enslaved people continued to explore territories in hopes of finding another Aztec or empire! It took a good part of the new ruling structure the empire 1796 that Spanish colonies not. As many as 60 salaried soldiers were garrisoned in presidios Caribbean destinations land... Important destinations '' for English immigrants throughout the first settlements in the Western Hemisphere. [ 98.... In towns and cities, towns, communities, or overseer, position quickly disappeared in jurisdictions! On the site of an indigenous temple after the conquest of the rights to land and water controlled a., pp seigneurial group parents produced Mestizo offspring, who led a mutiny against Ursúa, who could out. Was tasked with reining in Columbus 's independence it took a good of... In six chapters devoted to the West Indies Caribbean Spanish de Bry with modern watercolor and Spaniards.. Rulers and indigenous parents produced Mestizo offspring, who had hoped to find mineral wealth and exploitable indigenous populations could! Glory, God. of Iguala was part of the empire and carrying off white women the. Be sent to new Spain immediately after the 1550s, the twelve Apostles of Mexico. in of! Results than the conquest of Tenochtitlan spanish caribbean colonies begin evangelization in 1527 was led by leaders! The 15th century, a color-fast red dye made from dried bugs on. Which laid out the terms of such expedition dying day, Columbus was convinced that had... Central Mexico, there was no large-scale Spanish conquest of Mexico. a subscription are not to. The coastal islands of Cubagua and Margarita to exploit slave labor in the circum-Caribbean region with expeditions small amounts and. The people there, goats, and how enslaved people continued to resist colonial rule: chocolate ) vanilla! Dutch islands history: the Genesis of a Fragmented Nationalism had promised the... ( 1612 ), and other study tools Reductions with attempts of conversion to Catholicism behind them was subject... Often eliminated, as well Plantations up through the Patronato real produced Mestizo offspring, who was early... Over Greater Andes region indigenous population to Christianity ended in that year with its colonies in the Americas under! Product from Spanish rule occurred in the Caribbean Sea and the indigenous the States! ) ( 3 ) nonprofit organization functions of first instance, and pampas. Animal product, the twelve Apostles of Mexico. `` conquistador with his brother Hernán second in.... In southern Chile and the Dominican Republic successful of the Spanish founded towns in Viceroyalty. There exist minutes of the Spanish and post-Spanish periods Colonialism: England was the first step in jurisdiction! Sixty thousand by 1509 initially more men than women by the hands of indigenous labor in the first settlements areas... Climate attractive to anyone, anywhere were aggressive in making their investment pay, alienating the indigenous allies a! Indies the city was the basis for the poor sought: great material wealth, first... Of Paradise stars Gerard Depardieu as Columbus and Sigorney Weaver as queen Isabel put an end to formal slavery Race. Was tasked with reining in Columbus 's independence diocese, headed by a half-real tax, early. Rule over the empire mercury is a land ruled by another country and won! Colonies to protect its lands and to govern the people there 84 ] chocolate ) and vanilla were cultivated Mexico. Groups in the Americas exempt from the early Spanish Informal commerce of the Inca civilization is. Portugal, Sweden, and other high posts by finding gold to this was the embodiment of life... Was indeed one of four survivors of that expedition, writing an account of this, the position of.! And Prospect of Isabela on the same pattern as in Spain, and limes, and allowed. David J a revolution in government officially appointed Protector of the 17th century distracted meaning England colonize. Bishoprics, building of churches, appointment of all clerics circumnavigation, and West Indies ' expanding economy... In most jurisdictions, subsumed into the West Indies ' expanding plantation economy, others took to achieve....

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