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future threats to mangroves Posts

quarta-feira, 9 dezembro 2020

While there is a long way to go in terms of achieving these goals, starting at the first step of creating actual legal documents, and similar regulatory issues exist in every Greater Mekong country, GERES’s strategy points to one way toward better forest management. In the 1970s it was the most densely forested area on Earth. Hundreds of thousands of acres of lush wetlands have been cleared to make room for artificial ponds that are densely stocked with shrimp. “That includes agricultural development, that includes the establishment of shrimp farms and other coastal development projects.”. As well as direct impacts from human activity mangroves may also be under threat from global warming (Field, 1995) this is especially significant for mangroves, their intertidal location means they are likely to be one of the first habitats to be affected by a rise in sea level. In addition to the benefits they provide when it comes to fishing, storm protection and carbon sequestration, mangroves may actually expand amid rising sea levels. Water. By far the greatest threat to the world's mangrove forests is the rapidly expanding shrimp aquaculture industry. Loss of biodiversity is, and will continue to be, a severe problem as even pristine mangroves are species-poor compared with other tropical ecosystems. Based on available evidence, of all the climate change outcomes, relative sea-level rise may be the greatest threat to mangroves. Photo by Michael Tatarski for Mongabay. In the extreme scenario with fast rising sea levels and low sediment supplies, mangroves cannot catch sediment fast enough, which makes them increasingly inundated and consequently migrate upland or inland, what is known as coastal squeeze. Each scenario indicated some problems, but also some hope, for the mangroves. Forest destruction and degradation due to household fuelwood collection is an issue globally, including in Myanmar. Our EIN or tax ID is 45-3714703. Overall, Schwarz said that it will be important in future studies to examine the role of the different species-specific responses to mangrove forest loss in order to evaluate the future extent and diversity of mangrove forests and to help protect these vulnerable ecosystems. If anything, mangroves are set to become even more ecologically important than they already are as the climate continues to change worldwide. About the reporter: Michael Tatarski is Editor-in-Chief of the Saigoneer and a Vietnam-based freelance journalist. While the trial in Qatar was a success, funding has not been secured to expand the technology to other mangrove regions. Mangrove forests also act as a natural coastal protection, stabilizing the coastline and serving as one of the first lines of defense against storms for coastal communities. This book focuses on the worldwide threats to mangrove forests and the management solutions currently being used to counteract those hazards. This part of the country does not have a protected area. One relatively bright spot, at least in terms of mangrove protection, is Vietnam. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page. Share these facts about mangroves and help make a difference. Loss of trees ranged from 25% to 100% from shearing the trunks above ground, complete overwash of islands and prop root damage from marl and fine organic matter coating the roots.   ocm@udel.edu Mangroves are essential to maintaining water quality. “These roots allow them to catch most of the sediment, which can even lead to the landward mangrove portion being cut off from sediment supply and diversity loss. The simulations include interactions among tides, mud transport and, for the first time, multiple mangrove species. These three species represent the lower, middle and upper intertidal mangroves and thrive at different elevations.Â. Though the Can Gio Biosphere Reserve is located within the limits of fast-growing Ho Chi Minh City, it has thus far been spared from the city’s rapid urbanization. By protecting mangroves, we can help protect the future of our planet. The study tour was put together by the Manfred Hermsen Stiftung Foundation, Fauna and Flora International, UNESCO and the Mangrove Action Project. “The issue is that the illegal charcoal production in Myanmar has increased since charcoal production from the mangroves in Thailand has ended,” Böer said. Future threats to mangrove forests. A positive scenario for the mangroves occurred when sea level rise was relatively slow and a high amount of sediment was available in the water. Newark, DE 19716, A new study published in Environmental Research Letters, University of Delaware Newark, DE 19716 USA. Vietnam, for example, faces threats from both rising sea levels and more frequent typhoons. Christian Schwarz, an assistant professor at the University of Delaware, is a part of the international research team together with Utrecht University and the University of Exeter which developed the computer model. This picture was taken from the Firth of Thames, in New Zealand. But the mangroves are also increasingly threatened. Phone: 302-831-2792. This is important because it shows that mangrove coverage can increase despite sea level rise if the sediment supply is sufficient and landward accommodation space is available. If salinity becomes too high, the mangroves cannot survive. The Greater Mekong, which includes Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand and Myanmar, is key to this environmental vitality. greatest threats, with lesser problems being alteration of hydrology, pollution and global warming. [HANOI] Rising sea levels linked to global warming threaten economically, ecologically and culturally important mangrove forests in Pacific island states. “Coastal squeeze drastically removes the area covered by mangroves and consequently their benefits as coastal protection or carbon sequestration.”.  Oil spills cause damage to mangroves by coating roots, limiting the transport of oxygen to underground roots. Mangrove ecosystems are threatened by climate change. However, due to endemic corruption in Southeast Asia, the creation of a protected area does not necessarily mean all illegal activity will stop. We’ve cleared mangrove forests and wetlands to make way for resorts, harbors, roads, city expansion, and industry -- losing all the benefits they provide to both humans and wildlif… “They are trading the charcoal from Myanmar into Thailand. Mangroves are very susceptible to herbicides as demonstrated in South Vietnam by the U.S. military by the defoliation and destruction of over 250,000 acres (1,012 square kilometers) of mangroves. Most mangrove sediment surface elevations are not keeping pace … THREATS TO MANGROVES. Every day, Mongabay reporters bring you news from nature’s frontline. As described in the previous section, conversion of mangrove habitat to agriculture and aquaculture is a major factor in mangrove loss. They are a natural coastal defence. While such technical and legal advancements offer hope, there is little doubt that the near future will be challenging for the region’s mangroves, much like forests in general. “We have an abundance of seawater in the world, and mangroves are halophytes, or salt plants,” Böer said. One of the novelties of this study is that there hasn’t been much research on mangrove diversity and how the different species react to different environmental conditions brought on by sea level rise. However, this was not all positive news. If you value this objective and impact-driven journalism, please consider becoming a sustaining member. “So it would be possible for them [farmers] to grow mangroves, though they cannot be eaten, so that is another problem.”. The 300-square kilometer (116-square-mile) Ranong Biosphere Reserve is in Thailand, just below Myanmar’s southern tip on the Kra Isthumus. “Infrastructure and agribusiness will continue to be major drivers of deforestation, and wood consumption is only increasing year after year,” he said. The first step would be to create the actual documents needed to comply with these regulations. Nivollet’s vision is for people living in community forest areas to produce firewood through sustainable forest management practices. Photo by Ann Wang for Mongabay. Myanmar, for its part, is considering establishing a conservation area around the mangroves near Myeik, whether that is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, a geopark or a RAMSAR Wetland Conservation site. Mangroves are under threat globally due to land conversion, overexploitation, and other human-induced stressors. He stresses this model was developed to investigate how the interaction between multiple mangrove species and different environmental conditions shape diversity and vulnerability under different sea level rise and sediment conditions.Â, Looking at interactions between assemblages of mangrove species that live in the lower, middle and upper intertidal area, as well as water and sedimentary interactions and how the coastal profile evolves over time, the researchers chose three specific species of mangroves for their study: Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemose. Threats for the future The source of the most serious threats to mangroves is increasing human population density. Cambodia, with 443 kilometers (275 miles) of coastline, has a mangrove area as well, though it has been seriously degraded. Under these conditions, the mangrove forests were able to expand seaward, colonizing elevated mudflats while experiencing little stress from human-made barriers, which was also true when the sea level rise was low and the sediment inputs were low. Now, most charcoal production in Cambodia takes place in the Cardamom Mountains, along the country’s border with Thailand. Article by Adam Thomas As sea levels rise and mangroves want to retreat landward, their retreat can be blocked by urbanization and human-made structures, such as dams or other constructed flood protection works. These forests play a huge role in mitigating effects of climate change as well, Seymour said: “They store a large amount of carbon and, like peat swamps, because they provide an anaerobic environment where organic matter doesn’t completely decay underwater without oxygen, you have carbon that is not only stored in the vegetation of a mangrove swamp, but also stuck in the mud, so to speak.”. natural threats to mangroves. Another third is expected to disappear by 2030. With their dense network of roots and … They can then sell the wood to registered, fully legal charcoal producers, thus regulating and legally enforcing a trade that GERES estimates is worth $100 million annually. Mangroves live in brackish or salt water, and Vietnam, Thailand and Myanmar, which have more than 8,400 kilometers (5,200 miles) of coastline, feature significant forests of these trees. The future is not entirely bleak. Fuelwood and charcoal are main focal points of GERES’s work in Cambodia, though Nivollet said charcoal producers have largely moved away from the country’s small remaining mangrove forests north of Sihanoukville, a beach city undergoing explosive, unchecked growth through massive Chinese investment. Mangroves can survive such conditions while also serving as an incubator for shrimp and fish farms which can be destructive when not managed properly – which are key to the region’s aquaculture industry. In southern Vietnam, the 750-square kilometer (290-square-mile) Can Gio Biosphere Reserve lies outside Ho Chi Minh City. Mangrove deforestation is particularly devastating given the vital ecological role these forests play for surrounding communities. Designed for the professional or specialist in marine science, coastal zone management, biology, and related disciplines, this work will appeal to those not only working to protect mangrove forests, but also the surrounding coastal areas of all types. Photos by Barend van Maanen The Irrawaddy Delta, which also has mangroves, is home to the Meinmahla Kyun Wildlife Reserve. Additionally, they help to prevent flooding caused by coastal storms, which are expected to increase in severity and frequency due to climate change. This reduction in sediment delivery to the more landward mangrove species makes them incapable to capture sediment, build up with sea levels rise and makes them vulnerable to be replaced by species who are adapted to being underwater for longer periods of time — as the roots of the more seaward mangroves catch the sediment but still let the water through, flooding the higher intertidal mangroves. He added: “It would be in the best interest of nature conservation, but also nature conservation for the people who are living there. Last year a Myanmar Times investigation found that charcoal production was on the rise in Myeik, with the product being shipped to cities in Myanmar, as well as illegally exported to Thailand in unrecorded quantities. Threats to the Greater Mekong’s mangroves Mangroves live in brackish or salt water, and Vietnam, Thailand and Myanmar, which have more than 8,400 kilometers (5,200 miles) of coastline, feature significant forests of these trees. Alleged gov’t-linked land grabs threaten Cambodia’s Cardamom Mountains, Fueled by impunity, invasions surge in Brazil’s Indigenous lands, Chinese demand and domestic instability are wiping out Senegal’s last forests, Solomon Islands environmental defender faces life sentence for arson charge, ‘Tamper with nature, and everyone suffers’: Q&A with ecologist Enric Sala, New paper highlights spread of organized crime from global fisheries, Study: Chinese ‘dark fleets’ illegally defying sanctions by fishing in North Korean waters, Game changer? While harvesting has taken place for centuries, in some parts of the world it is no longer sustainable, threatening the future of the forests. The unique natural resources of the Florida coast have spawned a booming economy enjoyed by both residents and tourists. We used Resource Watch to explore threats to mangroves and the people who rely on them. Various stakeholders, including governments and NGOs, have been working on the conservation and restoration of mangrove ecosystems for years, yet with mixed results. The researchers ran simulations with a variety of scenarios of which three showed the most distinct behaviors: high sea level rise with low sediment supplies; low sea level rise with high sediment supplies; and low sea level rise and low sediment inputs. “We’re helping the forestry administration to develop from scratch the documents and letters that need to be obtained [by charcoal producers] — none of this exists,” she said. This book focuses on the worldwide threats to mangrove forests and the management solutions currently being used to counteract those hazards. Across the Greater Mekong, rapid economic growth has dramatically altered natural ecosystems, with forests, including mangroves, often bearing the brunt of industrialization and urbanization. Since then, a third of that tree cover has been lost. In the absence of a human-made tidal barrier, however, mangrove species can remain stable if sufficient landward habitat is available. Why Now? Nargis was the deadliest natural disaster in Myanmar’s history, causing at least 138,000 deaths. Then, they established a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and they had to have very transparent management plans, and those plans included the strict ban of mangroves being cut anymore.”. “Depending on the species, they can grow in full-strength seawater, they can grow and reproduce and germinate, so in times of sea level rise, it might be very important for the future of conducting coastal forestry to have mangroves available because they can grow new trees — they can grow up to 60 meters [197 feet] in height and they have very good wood which be used as a cash crop.”. These threats compound those already being felt, including the widespread conversion of mangrove to aquaculture. According to Seymour, mangroves also combat tsunamis, “because of their function in coastal protection and attenuating the strength of wave action as waves crash into the shore.” While tsunamis are very rare in the Greater Mekong, research has found that mangroves in nearby Indonesia helped protect coastal communities from the catastrophic 2004 Boxing Day tsunami. Mangroves, highlighted in green above, stretch from eastern India to southwestern Bangladesh. “There are many regulations, everything is clear on paper, but in fact it has never been implemented by anyone. The warning comes in a study published today (18 July) by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), which says some of the region’s islands could lose half of their mangroves by 2100. In developing countries, mangroves have proven critical for saving human lives by their dampening of the wave heights and wind speeds during coastal storms. “Each country in this region is trying to keep double-digit growth, so they have to look at how the economy grows, and sometimes it’s about investment in land and increasing productivity,” said Thibault Ledecq, regional forest coordinator at the WWF’s Greater Mekong Program in Phnom Penh, in a Skype call. Pressures like population growth and sea level rise are pushing in on the Sundarbans’ forests from all sides. natural threats to mangroves. “In these endangered areas where the worst conditions for mangroves exist, you only have two options to preserve them. Where mangroves are sheltered by coral reefs killed by climate change, damage to mangroves from increased wave action is expected to rise. Mangroves, like the ones pictured here from the Magdalena delta, Colombia, have dense roots that allow them to trap mud more effectively. But after years of ill-considered coastal development, we’re jeopardizing the very resources that enabled this growth. “The mangrove has been very degraded over the past decades, for charcoal production and for other reasons,” she said. Three major intact mangrove areas are located in Vietnam, Thailand and Myanmar. “Future management strategies need to weigh the loss of coastal mangroves and their inherent functions such as coastal protection and biodiversity conservation with the costs of mitigation strategies as restoring sediment delivery to coasts or providing upland accommodation space, which needs to be addressed sooner rather than later.”, Contact us at 302-831-NEWS or visit the Media Relations website, Office of Communications & Marketing After 2025, the future of mangroves will depend on technological and ecological advances in multi-species silviculture, genetics, and forestry modeling, but the greatest hope for their future is for a reduction in human population growth. “The most seaward mangroves have dense aerial roots, sticking out of the sediment surface, which are crucial to supply the mangrove tree with oxygen during the intertidal submersion times,” said Schwarz. This is not uncommon. Mangroves represent a type of tropical or subtropical forest with a singular capacity to withstand large short-term changes in salinity and to buffer the inland impact of ocean water storm surges. December 3, 2020. natural threats to mangroves Böer said he recently visited Ranong and Myeik along with experts and policymakers from Myanmar, Thailand and international conservation organizations. Such functions are particularly vital in the Greater Mekong, where climate change is expected to severely impact coastal regions and major cities. “Forests in general tend to be underappreciated for the many contributions that they make to human well-being across scales,” said Frances Seymour, a distinguished senior fellow at the World Resources Institute, via Skype. Mongabay is a U.S.-based non-profit conservation and environmental science news platform. A multi-partner initiative to build a better knowledge-base, strengthen empowerment and enhance governance for coastal ecosystem management in the Greater Indian Ocean Region Post navigation ← Previous News And Events Posted on December 2, 2020 by Causing tremendous damage to mangroves, herbicides, oil spills, and other types of water pollution may result in the death of these plants. River changes: Dams and irrigation reduce the amount of water reaching mangrove forests, changing the salinity level of water in the forest. This means very few people need firewood for daily living. This leads to a reduction in forest extent and diversity, since low living mangroves come to outcompete middle and upper mangroves — or those mangroves that live closer to the shore. Appreciation of the financial contribution of mangroves … The primary threats to all mangrove species are habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas for conversion to aquaculture, agriculture, urban and coastal development, and overexploitation. WATER POLLUTION  Causing tremendous damage to mangroves, herbicides, oil spills, and other types of water pollution may result in the death of these plants. “The laws and regulations are in place in Cambodia, but the thing is that the practical way of how to implement and comply with the regulations doesn’t exist,” Nivollet said. HO CHI MINH CITY, Vietnam — While Southeast Asia is known as one of the world’s fastest-growing economic regions, home to booming metropolises like Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh City and Kuala Lumpur, it also hosts some of the planet’s most vital ecological areas. Another possibility is artificial mangroves, which UNESCO’s Böer says have been successfully tested in Qatar. The Greater Mekong is also home to one of the world’s major mangrove forest distributions, along with Central America and the southern United States, as well as the coastal tropics of West and East Africa. Myanmar features a mangrove forest in the area between Kawthaung and Myeik, north of Ranong. Newark, DE 19716 We don’t want to damage the people who are living on charcoal production.”. “Future management strategies need to weigh the loss of coastal mangroves and their inherent functions such as coastal protection and biodiversity conservation with the costs of mitigation strategies as restoring sediment delivery to coasts or providing upland accommodation space, which needs to be addressed sooner rather than later.” You can find him on Twitter at @miketatarski.Â. According to UNESCO, within the Greater Mekong region, Myanmar contains the largest area of mangroves, covering 5,030 square kilometers (1,942 square miles), followed by Thailand with 2,484 square kilometers (959 square miles), Vietnam with 1,057 square kilometers (408 square miles), and Cambodia with 728 square kilometers (281 square miles). “The main reason approximately 32 million hectares [320,000 square kilometers, or 123,550 square miles] of mangroves globally have been brought down to 15 million hectares [150,000 square kilometers, or 57,900 square miles] is land use change,” Böer said. “This seems to be decreasing a lot simply because there is no more mangrove,” Nivollet said by phone from Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Vietnam’s mangroves are aided by the fact that the government has successfully provided a stable electricity supply to more than 99 percent of the country’s population, according to the World Bank. Mangrove forest at MSN island in Myanmar, where groups hope to use the land as an educational center and nursing ground for various mangroves species. The problem they are encountering is that applying to become a legal producer involves paying numerous royalties, fees and permit costs, disincentivizing the process of becoming legitimate. Threats to mangrove … Such a scenario could come into play in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam’s most fertile rice- and fruit-growing region, parts of which are already feeling the impact of salinization as the sea inches upstream. “We’re trying to explain to the forest administration, ‘How do you want this sector to become regulated if regulations mean a reduction of the profitability for producers?’” Nivollet said. “The effects of Nargis were even worse thanks to the fact there wasn’t much mangrove already, and it destroyed the rest,” Nivollet added. It examined the effectiveness of Thailand’s biosphere reserve and what lessons can be applied to Myanmar’s mangroves, with officials from the latter country expected to push for more protection of these areas as a result. “It’s very challenging to find the way to make it profitable to produce sustainable, legal charcoal.”. : The Science, Economics, and Politics of Tropical Forests and Climate Change,” described the role of mangroves as a trifecta of human-nature interconnectedness. Sea-Level rise may be able to expand despite sea-level rise may be the greatest threat to mangroves, we re. Is an issue, ” said Schwarz of course they can’t enforce it.” and major cities sufficient availability!, this has pushed charcoal production across the border into Myanmar but in fact it has never been implemented anyone... Different elevations. be to create the actual documents needed to comply with these regulations of Doong in Vietnam! 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